# Fundamental group of wedge sum relative to basepoints with neighborhoods that deformation retract to them is free product of fundamental groups

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## Statement

Suppose $(X,x_0)$ and $(Y,y_0)$ are based topological spaces. Suppose, further, that $X$ and $Y$ are both path-connected spaces (otherwise, we basically care only about the path components of $X$ and $Y$). Consider the Wedge sum (?): $\! (Z,z_0) = (X,x_0) \vee (Y,y_0)$

Here, $Z = (X \sqcup Y)/\{ x_0, y_0 \}$ and the identified point $\! x_0 \sim y_0$ is labeled $z_0$.

Suppose, further that:

• There exists an open subset $A$ of $X$ containing $x_0$ such that $A$ has a strong deformation retraction to $x_0$.
• There exists an open subset $B$ of $Y$ containing $y_0$ such that $B$ has a strong deformation retraction to $y_0$.

Then, we have the following relationship between the fundamental groups of $(X,x_0)$, $(Y,y_0)$, and $(Z,z_0)$: $\! \pi_1(Z,z_0) \cong \pi_1(X,x_0) * \pi_1(Y,y_0)$

where $\! *$ denotes the free product of groups.

## Facts used

1. Seifert-van Kampen theorem